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Under the Bank of Tanzania BoT Act, [ 17 ], the Minister responsible can make necessary or desirable regulations to facilitate the smooth running of the banking business[ 18 ]. The Bank and Financial Institution Act,among others things, has been enacted to provide a supervision mechanism for banks and financial institutions.

The Act also empowers the Minister to make necessary or desirable regulation[ 19 ]. Other laws which can be used to regulate the banking sector depending on prevailing circumstances include the Foreign Exchange Act[ 20 ] which deals with inter alia foreign currencies, the Law of Contract Act[ 21 ] which regulates contracts, the Land Act[ 22 ] when it comes to mortgage, the Company Act[ 23 ] for bank registration and Electronic and Postal Communication Act, [ 24 ], for electronic communication.

However, most of these legislations were enacted basically to regulate paper-based transactions and not those occurring in the online environment. Even when these Acts were enacted during electronic era, they do not go into detail necessary to address issues of electronic banking.

A good example is the Electronic and Postal Communication Act, [ 25 ]. The following part discusses three legislations, namely the Cybercrimes Act, [ 26 ], the Electronic Transactions Act, [ 27 ] and the National Payment System, Act, [ 28 ].

Moreover, it discusses in detail the provisions of these legislations in relation to e-banking in line with the objectives of the present article. InTanzania enacted the Cybercrimes Act,which prescribes cybercrimes and their attendant punishments.

These crimes include those committed via the computer system and information technology such as illegal access, illegal remaining, illegal interception, illegal data interference, data espionage, illegal system interference, illegal devices, computer-related forgery, computer-related fraud, identity related crime and conspiracy to commit offence[ 29 ].

The Act also provides procedures for search and seizure[ 30 ], liability of service providers[ 31 ] and general provisions regarding immunity, forfeiture of property, and offences by a body corporate, compounding of offences and spells out the power of the minister to make Regulations[ 32 ]. The Act recognises electronic transactions and their effects[ 33 ].

It also recognises electronic contract[ 34 ] and the admissibility of electronic evidence[ 35 ]. In fact, this Act also regulates electronic transaction in general. As its title implies, the Act aims to regulate and supervise the payment systems, regulate electronic payment instrument, e-money, payment system service providers, validity and enforceability of netting arrangements, finality and the settlement of payment instruction and other related matters.

Apart from the weaknesses in the current policies, laws and the institutional framework of ICT guiding electronic banking in Tanzania that have been pointed out thus far, there are basic omissions which ought to be addressed to develop even further e-banking while safeguarding the interests of the banks or financial institutions and customers by creating a conducive and safe online banking environment in the country.

These following are some of the omissions that need to be addressed discussed below:. For Tanzania, the situation is aggravated because banks are allowed to unilaterally dictate terms and conditions without consulting their customers why do you want to study mba essay, finally, Bank approval.

Consequently, the banks make terms and conditions which absolve them from all liabilities, for example, the terms and conditions of CRDB[ 36 ]. In addition, some banks can unilaterally change terms and conditions without informing their customers, for example, terms and conditions of DCB mobile[ 37 ] and CRDB[ 38 ]. These terms and conditions of banks are unilateral as banks create them with the sole intention of protecting their interest while interests at the expense of those of the customer.

Thus, these banks should be guided in this regard to create fair and impartial terms for both the banks or financial institutions and their customers. In this regard, there is a need to formulate comprehensive policy to guide all the banks and financial institutions countrywide. Unlike Tanzania, Mauritius Guidelines on Internet Banking, provides precisely inter alia that the contractual arrangements for liability should cover the sharing of risks between the institution and customers[ 39 ].

The rationale behind this provision is that customers should not be liable for loss not attributable to or occasioned by them. In similar vein, Malaysia provides a good lesson. As such, the customers should not be made liable for phd thesis on crm in banking sector loss to which they have not contributed and the same applies to banks or financial institution. Implicitly both parties are protected against the loss caused by the other party. Second, the BoT Electronic Banking Guidelines of do not provide damage recovery in e-banking transactions.

As result, banks and financial institutions can decide unilaterally on how to pay damages without being guided. Some banks such as the NMB through its terms and conditions state that the bank shall phd thesis on islamic banking pay any damage to customers in connection with their account or service[ 40 ]. In other countries, guidelines address this issue to avoid such pronouncements that disadvantage customers without due regard.

Some banks, normally, refund the customers the exact amounts after negotiations upon getting complaints.

Phd thesis mobile banking

However, they do not consider compensating the customers for the time and other imbalances occasioned by such e-banking damages. Third, the Acts do not provide the right to countermand as the law is silent on this matter and banks are normally left to decide without any due guidance. This means a customer cannot demand such rights under the Tanzanian law. As the BoT Guidelines do not provide for this right, the banks deny customers this right by imposing terms and conditions that favour respective financial institutions to the detriment of customer interests and rights.

Whereas in Tanzania the law does not give the right of countermand, in the US the Electronic Fund Transfer Act, provides for and guarantees this right[ 44 ]. The Act states:. The present study is an endeavour to investigate the relationship of factors influencing the customers in regard to the continuance usage of e-banking in Jordan based on the Technology Continuance Theory TCT. Subsequently, the moderating effects of Big Five personality traits extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and neuroticism on the relationship between satisfaction and continuance usage of ebanking were investigated.

Quantitative approach was applied for the present study and questionnaires were collected from the bank customers who were selected using multistage sampling technique.

Phd thesis on islamic banking

Multivariate data normality tests, descriptive statistics, and structural equation modelling SEM were used for data analysis. The proposed model of the present study supported the results, revealing a significant direct relationship of the relationship between perceived confirmation, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and attitude with the continuance usage of ebanking.

Cite Download Share Embed. In contrast to previous studies, the research questions were tackled by survey questionnaires both in the UK and China, with a particular interest in fraud and attempted fraud.

Banking essay Betrayal essays. Thesis on online banking services. South African Journal of Information Management.

International Journal of Human Resource Studies

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Please note that direct copying from this academic resources is not allowed. If you would like to use any of our guides, manuals or sample works, please cite it properly. Have a writing related question?

Want to join our team? Have a suggestion on how to improve our blog? Even if the banking system evolved a lot in the last years, there are still breaches in their security systems that can allow criminals to steal the funds.

Phd thesis on crm in banking sector

Try to find some valid, useful solutions for this problem. Terms and conditions. Make them understand how important it is to be aware of what are they are signing. The advantages and disadvantages of credit cards. Less and less people choose to keep money cash. However, there were times when having a credit card was useless, or it created only complications.

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Phd thesis on internet banking

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